Extra Questions from in class PRS

Study Topics

Kepler’s Laws

Newton’s Laws

Gravity

Solar System Formation

Debris

Atmospheres

Topic Chapters Outline

Test next Wednesday.

Chapter 1

1.4 (Kepler)

1.5 (Newton)

Chapter 2

2.5 (Spectroscopy)

Chapter 4

4.1 inventory (review general properties)

4.2 debris (asteroids, meteoroids, comets)

4.3 solar system formation (nebular theory)

Chapter 5

5.1 bulk properties (skim on your own)

5.2 tides (skim on your own)

5.3, 6.3 and 6.8 atmospheres (composition, effect on temperature, greenhouse effect

5.4 interiors (differentiation)

5.5, 5,6 (surfaces, just skim on your own)

5.7 magnetospheres

5.8 Earth-Moon history (impact theory)

Chapter 6

6.3 and 6.8 atmospheres (supplement to 5.3)

Sample problems to work out:

1) Given:

• Mass of the Earth = 6x1024 kg
• Mass of the Sun = 2x1030 kg
• Gravitational Constant = 6.67x10-11 Nm2/kg2
• Astronomical Unit = 1.5x108 km

What is the force of gravity between the Earth and the Sun?

2) Calculate the maximum distance of Halley's comet from the Sun

• Assume perihelion = 1 A.U.
• Assume period = 76 years

PRS Questions (answers at the end)

1) What is the correct order, going from closest to farthest from the Sun?

A) Venus, Jupiter, Asteroids, Neptune

B) Jupiter, Neptune , Oort cloud, Pluto

C) Venus, Asteroids, Saturn, Neptune

D) Neptune, Uranus, Asteroids, Mars

E) Saturn, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus

2) Planetary orbits are

A) Circular.

B) Parabolic.

C) Elliptical.

D) Hyperbolic.

3) Two planets have orbits with the same periods. Which is true?

A) Their velocities must be the same.

B) They must have the same eccentricity.

C) They must have the same semi-major axis.

D) Their orbits must be identical.

4) A planet orbit could be circular.

A) True

B) False

5) Two planets have orbits with the same sized semi-major axis. Which is true?

A) The planet with the most eccentric orbit moves faster all the time.

B) The planet with the most eccentric orbit moves faster some of the time.

C) The planet with the most eccentric orbit never moves faster.

D) Not enough information to answer.

6) Assume a planet orbits exactly twice as far from the Sun as the Earth does.

A) It’s period is 2 years exactly.

B) It’s period is between 2 and 3 years

C) It’s period is between 3 and 4 years

D) It’s period is 4 years exactly.

7) A brick hits a glass window. The brick breaks the glass, so the magnitude of the force of the brick on the glass is

A) is greater than the magnitude of the force of the glass on the brick

B) is smaller than the magnitude of the force of the glass on the brick

C) is equal to the magnitude of the force of the glass on the brick

D) none of the preceding

8) An iron weight and a styrofoam ball are dropped from the same height at the same time.

Which hits the ground first?

A) The iron weight

B) The styrofoam ball

C) They hit at the same time

9) Which mass pair has the greatest gravitational force between them?

A) A 5Msolar mass and a 4Msolar mass separated by 4 AU.

B) A 4Msolar mass and a 3Msolar mass separated by 3 AU.

C) A 3Msolar mass and a 2Msolar mass separated by 2 AU.

D) A 2Msolar mass and a 1Msolar mass separated by 1 AU.

10) What is the correct order, going from closest to farthest from the Sun?

A) Venus, Asteroids, Saturn, Neptune

B) Venus, Jupiter, Asteroids, Neptune

C) Jupiter, Neptune , Oort cloud, Pluto

D) Neptune, Uranus, Asteroids, Mars

E) Saturn, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus

11) On top of a very high mountain, you would "weigh"…

A) Less than at sea level

B) The same as at sea level

C) More than at sea level.

12) The nucleus of a comet is typically:

A) a few meters in diameter.

B) very durable, made of iron.

C) a few kilometers in size, and very low in density.

D) a few hundred kilometers across, and bright, shiny white from its ices.

E) located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

13) Temperature - Which feels hotter?

A) 300° F

B) 300° C

C) 300° K

14) Which will have the greatest effect on a planet’s temperature?

A) doubling a planet’s distance to the sun

B) doubling a planet’s albedo

C) doubling a planet’s mass

D) doubling a planet’s rotation rate

15) Which has the most kinetic energy?

A) A 1 kg Mass with velocity 4 m/s.

B) A 2 kg Mass with velocity 3 m/s.

C) A 3 kg Mass with velocity 2 m/s.

D) A 4 kg Mass with velocity 1 m/s.

16) A net force of 15 N is applied to an object with mass 5 kg. According to Newton’s 2nd Law…

A) The acceleration is 3 m/s2

B) The acceleration is 45 m/s2

C) The acceleration is 15 m/s2

D) The acceleration is .25 m/s2

17) Which is correct

A) wavelength / velocity = frequency

B) wavelength / velocity = period

C) wavelength * frequency = period

D) wavelength * velocity = frequency

18) Which list is in the correct order of electromagnetic radiation wavelength, going from shortest to longest?

B) gamma, x-ray, ultraviolet, visible

E) red, violet, blue, green

19) Which mass pair has the greatest gravitational force between them?

A) A 5Msolar mass and a 4Msolar mass separated by 4 AU.

B) A 4Msolar mass and a 3Msolar mass separated by 3 AU.

C) A 3Msolar mass and a 2Msolar mass separated by 2 AU.

D) A 2Msolar mass and a 1Msolar mass separated by 1 AU.

20) Which statement about planetary orbits is incorrect?

A) All planets orbit the Sun counterclockwise.

B) Most stay close to the earth's equator in the sky.

C) Most orbits are almost circular, with low eccentricities.

D) All have the Sun at one focus of their elliptical orbits.

E) Most also rotate counterclockwise on their axes as well.

21) Iron meteorites are believed to come from:

A) the core of a differentiated asteroid, now broken up.

B) the crust of a differentiated asteroid, now broken up.

C) a broken up cometary nucleus.

D) debris from the Kuiper Belt.

E) interstellar space.

22) Which planet shows the widest range of surface temperatures between day and night?

A) Mercury

B) Venus

C) Earth

D) Mars

E) Uranus

23) Which of these is not a form of electromagnetic radiation?

A) television signals
B) ultraviolet causing a suntan
C) light from your camp fire
D) DC current from your car battery
E) x-rays in the doctor's office

24) The speed of light in a vacuum is written as:

A) h = E/c.
B) v = 186,000 miles per hour.
C) v = 768 km/hour.
D) c = 300,000 km/sec.
E) not given

25) The relationship that the total energy radiated by a black body is proportional to T4 is attributed to?

A) Bunsen
B) Wien
C) Kirchhoff
D) Stefan

26) Which property of a black body is NOT true?

A) It appears black to us, regardless of its temperature
B) Its energy is in a continuum.
C) Its energy peaks at the wavelength determined by its temperature.
D) If its temperature is doubled, the peak in its curve would be halved in wavelength.
E) If its temperature doubled, it would give off 16 times more total energy.

27) A pulsating variable star has a temperature ranging from 4000 K to 8000 K.  When it is hottest, each cm2 of surface radiates how much more energy?

A) (sqrt2)x more
B) 2x more
C) 4x more
D) 16x more

C C C A B   B C C D A   A C B A B   A B B D B   A A D D D   A D